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Form of gambling
Odds boards in a Las Vegas sportsbook
Sports betting is the activity of predicting sports results and placing a 3️⃣ wager on the outcome.
Sports bettors place their wagers either legally, through a bookmaker/sportsbook, or illegally through privately run enterprises referred 3️⃣ to as "bookies".
The term "book" is a reference to the books used by wage brokers to track wagers, payouts, and 3️⃣ debts.
Many legal sportsbooks are found online, operated over the Internet from jurisdictions separate from the clients they serve, usually to 3️⃣ get around various gambling laws (such as the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 in the United States) in 3️⃣ select markets, such as Las Vegas, or on gambling cruises through self-serve kiosks.
 There are different types of legalized sports 3️⃣ betting now such as game betting, parlays props and future bets.
They take bets "up-front", meaning the bettor must pay the 3️⃣ sportsbook before placing the bet.
Due to the nature of their business, illegal bookies can operate anywhere but only require money 3️⃣ from losing bettors and do not require the wagered money up front, creating the possibility of debt to the bookie 3️⃣ from the bettor.
This creates a number of other criminal elements, thus furthering their illegality.
There have been a number of sports 3️⃣ betting scandals, affecting the integrity of sports events through various acts including point shaving (players affecting the score by missing 3️⃣ shots), spot-fixing (a player action is fixed), bad calls from officials at key moments, and overall match-fixing (the overall result 3️⃣ of the event is fixed).
Examples include the 1919 World Series, the alleged (and later admitted) illegal gambling of former baseball 3️⃣ player Pete Rose, and former NBA referee Tim Donaghy.
Types of betsUnited States
Betting on the Favorite, an 1870 engraving published in 3️⃣ Harper's Weekly
Moneyline bets do not have a spread or handicap, and require the chosen team to win the game outright.
The 3️⃣ favored team pays lower odds than does the underdog; thus, it acts mainly as an enticement to take the underdog 3️⃣ for a better payout.
Sometimes a bettor may couple this type of bet on the favored team to increase the payout 3️⃣ of a parlay.
do not have a spread or handicap, and require the chosen team to win the game outright.
The favored 3️⃣ team pays lower odds than does the underdog; thus, it acts mainly as an enticement to take the underdog for 3️⃣ a better payout.
Sometimes a bettor may couple this type of bet on the favored team to increase the payout of 3️⃣ a parlay.
Spread betting are wagers that are made against the spread.
The spread, or line, is a number assigned by the 3️⃣ bookmakers which handicaps one team and favors another when two teams play each other and one is perceived as being 3️⃣ more likely to win.
The favorite "gives" points from the final score, and the underdog "takes" points.
This number can also be 3️⃣ in increments of half-a-point (.
5) even though very few sports have .5 point scoring (i.e.
, The Ryder Cup), to avoid 3️⃣ the possibility of a tie.
For example, before game 5 of the 2012 NBA Finals, the Miami Heat were expected to 3️⃣ beat the Oklahoma City Thunder.
The line read: Miami −3.
5, Oklahoma City +3.5.
 To determine who wins against the spread, the 3️⃣ line is either added or subtracted from a team's final score.
In the above example, if the bettor chose Miami, for 3️⃣ him to win his bet, Miami would have to win the game by 4 points or more.
If a bettor took 3️⃣ Oklahoma City, they would have to win outright or lose by 3 points or fewer.
If the final adjusted score is 3️⃣ a tie, the bet is considered a push.
The half point at the end is sometimes added to eliminate the possibility 3️⃣ of a push.
This is the most common type of bet in American sports betting.
Total (Over/Under) bets are wagers made based 3️⃣ on the total score between both teams.
In an example, if an MLB game has a total of 10.
5, an over 3️⃣ bettor will want the combined total to be greater, and the opposite for a bettor taking the under.
If the combined 3️⃣ total is the same as the proposed total, the bet is a push.
Most sports books refund all wagers on pushes, 3️⃣ though a minority counts them as losses.
are wagers made based on the total score between both teams.
In an example, if 3️⃣ an MLB game has a total of 10.
5, an over bettor will want the combined total to be greater, and 3️⃣ the opposite for a bettor taking the under.
If the combined total is the same as the proposed total, the bet 3️⃣ is a push.
Most sports books refund all wagers on pushes, though a minority counts them as losses.
Proposition bets are wagers 3️⃣ made on a very specific outcome of a match not related to the final score, usually of a statistical nature.
Examples 3️⃣ include predicting the number of goals a star player scores in an association football match, betting whether a player will 3️⃣ run for a certain number of yards in an American football game, or wagering that a baseball player on one 3️⃣ team will accumulate more hits than another player on the opposing team.
are wagers made on a very specific outcome of 3️⃣ a match not related to the final score, usually of a statistical nature.
Examples include predicting the number of goals a 3️⃣ star player scores in an association football match, betting whether a player will run for a certain number of yards 3️⃣ in an American football game, or wagering that a baseball player on one team will accumulate more hits than another 3️⃣ player on the opposing team.Parlays.
A parlay involves multiple bets that rewards successful bettors with a greater payout only if all 3️⃣ bets in the parlay win.
A parlay is at least two bets, but can be as many as the bookmaker will 3️⃣ allow.
The possible payout of the parlay is determined by the combined likelihood of all bets placed.
A parlay of riskier bets 3️⃣ (more underdogs) will pay greater than a parlay of more likely bets (more favorites).
In a parlay, all bets need to 3️⃣ win in order for the parlay to win.
If one of the bets on a parlay loses, the whole parlay loses.
In 3️⃣ the event of a push, the pushed bet would be taken out of the parlay and the parlay would bump 3️⃣ down to a set of odds without that bet.
Parlays are very appealing to bettors because they pay out much more 3️⃣ than the total winnings of their constituent straight bets.
However, it is much more difficult to hit on a parlay than 3️⃣ it is on a single wager.Teasers.
A teaser is a parlay that gives the bettor an advantage at a lower, but 3️⃣ still positive, payout if successful.
The bettor selects the sport(s), number of games, and number of points given.
If the bettor takes 3️⃣ two NBA games at +6.
5 it will adjust the individual bets at that rate.
So a bet on a 3-point underdog 3️⃣ at +3 will become a bet at +9.
5 points, and for favorites, it will change a 3-point favorite at −3 3️⃣ to +3.5 points.
Although the rules to win his bet are the same as a parlay, he is paid less than 3️⃣ a regular parlay due to the increased odds of winning.If bets .
An if bet consists of at least two straight 3️⃣ bets joined by an if clause, which determines the wager process.
If the player's first selection complies with the condition (clause), 3️⃣ then the second selection will have action; if the second selection complies with the condition, then the third selection will 3️⃣ have action and so on..
An if bet consists of at least two straight bets joined by an if clause, which 3️⃣ determines the wager process.
If the player's first selection complies with the condition (clause), then the second selection will have action; 3️⃣ if the second selection complies with the condition, then the third selection will have action and so on.
Run line, puck 3️⃣ line, or goal line bets .
These are wagers offered as alternatives to money line wagers in baseball, hockey, or soccer, 3️⃣ respectively.
These bets are effectively point spread bets that have the same money line odds on either side of the wager 3️⃣ (i.e.
industry standard of -110 to -115).
Sportsbooks will occasionally shift the moneyline by a few points on either side of these 3️⃣ spread bets..
These are wagers offered as alternatives to money line wagers in baseball, hockey, or soccer, respectively.
These bets are effectively 3️⃣ point spread bets that have the same money line odds on either side of the wager (i.e.
industry standard of -110 3️⃣ to -115).
Sportsbooks will occasionally shift the moneyline by a few points on either side of these spread bets.Futures wagers.
While all 3️⃣ sports wagers are by definition on future events, bets listed as "futures" generally have a long-term horizon measured in weeks 3️⃣ or months; for example, a bet that a certain NFL team will win the Super Bowl for the upcoming season.
Such 3️⃣ a bet can be made before the season starts in September for the best possible payout, but futures are typically 3️⃣ available year-round, with payouts being reduced as the season progresses and it becomes easier to predict a champion.
In this example, 3️⃣ winning bets will not pay off until the conclusion of the Super Bowl in January or February (although many of 3️⃣ the losing bets will be clear well before then and can be closed out by the book).
Odds for such a 3️⃣ bet generally are expressed in a ratio of units paid to unit wagered.
The team wagered upon might be 50–1 (or 3️⃣ +5000) to win the Super Bowl, which means that the bet will pay 50 times the amount wagered if the 3️⃣ team does so.
In general, most sportsbooks will prefer this type of wager due to the low win-probability, and also the 3️⃣ longer period of time in which the house holds the player's money while the bet is pending.
For this same reason, 3️⃣ most professional bettors do not prefer to place futures bets.
A sportsbook may choose to buy in-play futures wagers at a 3️⃣ price below the actual payout before a championship is decided if the potential payout is very high (and thus, damaging 3️⃣ to the sportsbook due to the money that may be lost).
The most recent example of this was when Leicester City 3️⃣ pursued and went on to win the 2015/16 Premier League.Head-to-Head .
In these bets, bettor predicts competitors results against each other 3️⃣ and not on the overall result of the event.
One example are Formula One races, where you bet on two or 3️⃣ three drivers and their placement among the others.
Sometimes you can also bet a "tie", in which one or both drivers 3️⃣ either have the same time, drop out, or get disqualified..
In these bets, bettor predicts competitors results against each other and 3️⃣ not on the overall result of the event.
One example are Formula One races, where you bet on two or three 3️⃣ drivers and their placement among the others.
Sometimes you can also bet a "tie", in which one or both drivers either 3️⃣ have the same time, drop out, or get disqualified.Totalizators .
In totalizators (sometimes called flexible-rate bets) the odds are changing in 3️⃣ real-time according to the share of total exchange each of the possible outcomes have received taking into account the return 3️⃣ rate of the bookmaker offering the bet.
For example: If the bookmakers return percentage is 90%, 90% of the amount placed 3️⃣ on the winning result will be given back to bettors and 10% goes to the bookmaker.
Naturally the more money bet 3️⃣ on a certain result, the smaller the odds on that outcome become.
This is similar to parimutuel wagering in horse racing 3️⃣ and dog racing..
In totalizators (sometimes called flexible-rate bets) the odds are changing in real-time according to the share of total 3️⃣ exchange each of the possible outcomes have received taking into account the return rate of the bookmaker offering the bet.
For 3️⃣ example: If the bookmakers return percentage is 90%, 90% of the amount placed on the winning result will be given 3️⃣ back to bettors and 10% goes to the bookmaker.
Naturally the more money bet on a certain result, the smaller the 3️⃣ odds on that outcome become.
This is similar to parimutuel wagering in horse racing and dog racing.Half bets .
A half (halftime) 3️⃣ bet applies only to the score of the first or second half.
This bet can be placed on the spread (line) 3️⃣ or over/under.
This can also be applied to a specific quarter in American football or basketball, a fewer number of innings 3️⃣ in baseball, or a specific period in hockey..
A half (halftime) bet applies only to the score of the first or 3️⃣ second half.
This bet can be placed on the spread (line) or over/under.
This can also be applied to a specific quarter 3️⃣ in American football or basketball, a fewer number of innings in baseball, or a specific period in hockey.In-play betting.
In-play betting, 3️⃣ or live betting, is a fairly new feature offered by some online sports books that enables bettors to place new 3️⃣ bets while a sporting event is in progress.
In-play betting first appeared towards the end of the 1990s when some bookmakers 3️⃣ would take bets over the telephone whilst a sports event was in progress, and has now evolved into a popular 3️⃣ online service in many countries.
 The introduction of in-play betting has allowed bookmakers to increase the number of markets available 3️⃣ to bet on during sports events, and gamblers are able to place bets based on many types of in-game activity 3️⃣ during the matches.
For example, in football matches, it is possible to bet in on in-play markets including the match result, 3️⃣ half-time score, number of goals scored in the first or second half of the game, the number of yellow cards 3️⃣ during the match, and the name of the goal scorers.
 The availability of a particular sport and in-play markets varies 3️⃣ from bookmaker to bookmaker.
In-play sports betting has structural characteristics that have changed the mechanics of gambling for sports bettors, as 3️⃣ they can now place a larger number of bets during a single sports game (as opposed to a single bet 3️⃣ on who is going to win).
One of the most important differences between being able to place an in-running sports bet 3️⃣ opposed to a pre-match bet is that the nature of the market has been turned what was previously a discontinuous 3️⃣ form of gambling into a continuous one.
The gambling study literature has suggested that in-play sports betting may offer more of 3️⃣ a risk to problem gamblers because it allows the option for high-speed continuous betting and requires rapid and impulsive decisions 3️⃣ in the absence of time for reflection.
 There are three different types of in-play sports betting products(cash out, Edit my 3️⃣ Acca, and Edit my Bet).Cash Out .
Cash Out betting functionality lets the user of a betting website take profit early 3️⃣ if their bet is coming in, or get some of their stake back if their bet is going against them-all 3️⃣ before the event is over.
Cash Out offers are optionally made by the website in real time on some current bets 3️⃣ held by the user and are optionally taken by the user by clicking on a button on the webpage to 3️⃣ "Cash out".
Cash Out sports betting functionality developed on digital betting websites after 2008 with the evolution of betting exchanges.
It was 3️⃣ later adopted by online sports books and suppliers of betting software.
'Cash out' is offered to users by online sportsbook operators 3️⃣ based on the profitability of offering the option to the user to divest their existing bet on an outcome and 3️⃣ is sometimes available on singles and multiples.
It is regularly offered on a wide range of sports, including American football, tennis, 3️⃣ horse racing, basketball, and most other markets.
You can Cash Out of bets pre-play, in-play, and between legs, before the outcome 3️⃣ of the event.
It has proved a key customer retention tool for sports book operators looking to capitalize on the use 3️⃣ of mobile handsets while the bettor/user is also watching a given event..
Cash Out betting functionality lets the user of a 3️⃣ betting website take profit early if their bet is coming in, or get some of their stake back if their 3️⃣ bet is going against them-all before the event is over.
Cash Out offers are optionally made by the website in real 3️⃣ time on some current bets held by the user and are optionally taken by the user by clicking on a 3️⃣ button on the webpage to "Cash out".
Cash Out sports betting functionality developed on digital betting websites after 2008 with the 3️⃣ evolution of betting exchanges.
It was later adopted by online sports books and suppliers of betting software.
'Cash out' is offered to 3️⃣ users by online sportsbook operators based on the profitability of offering the option to the user to divest their existing 3️⃣ bet on an outcome and is sometimes available on singles and multiples.
It is regularly offered on a wide range of 3️⃣ sports, including American football, tennis, horse racing, basketball, and most other markets.
You can Cash Out of bets pre-play, in-play, and 3️⃣ between legs, before the outcome of the event.
It has proved a key customer retention tool for sports book operators looking 3️⃣ to capitalize on the use of mobile handsets while the bettor/user is also watching a given event.Edit My Acca .
This 3️⃣ feature allows gamblers to remove selections from their accumulator after the bet has been placed and in some instances after 3️⃣ the selected event has started.
The betting slip is then revised to feature the amended selections and a new potential return 3️⃣ amount.
This can be done online or via a mobile device..
This feature allows gamblers to remove selections from their accumulator after 3️⃣ the bet has been placed and in some instances after the selected event has started.
The betting slip is then revised 3️⃣ to feature the amended selections and a new potential return amount.
This can be done online or via a mobile device.Edit 3️⃣ My Bet.
The 'edit bet' feature can be used by gamblers to 'unsettle straight accumulators' before matches have started or whilst 3️⃣ they are in-play.
The feature can also be used for to swap single bets for new bets, and the gambler is 3️⃣ given a new bet selection valued at the bookie's cash out price to reflect live market/game odds for the original 3️⃣ bet.Bookmaking
The bookmaker functions as a market maker for sports wagers, most of which have a binary outcome: a team either 3️⃣ wins or loses.
The bookmaker accepts both wagers, and maintains a spread (the vigorish) which will ensure a profit regardless of 3️⃣ the outcome of the wager.
The Federal Wire Act of 1961 was an attempt by the US government to prevent illegal 3️⃣ bookmaking.
 However, this Act does not apply to other types of online gambling.
 The Supreme Court has not ruled on 3️⃣ the meaning of the Federal Wire Act as it pertains to online gambling.
Bookmakers usually hold an 11–10 advantage over their 3️⃣ customers-for small wagers it is closer to a 6–5 advantage-so the bookmaker will most likely survive over the long term.
Successful 3️⃣ bookmakers must be able to withstand a large short term loss.(Boyd, 1981)
Many of the leading gambling bookmakers from the 1930s 3️⃣ to the 1960s got their start during the prohibition era of the 1920s.
They were often descendants of the influx of 3️⃣ immigrants coming into the US at this time.
Although the common stereotype is that these bookies were of Italian descent, many 3️⃣ leading bookies were of eastern European ancestry.Odds
Odds for different outcomes in single bet are presented either in European format (decimal 3️⃣ odds), UK format (fractional odds), or American format (money line odds).
European format (decimal odds) are used in continental Europe, Canada, 3️⃣ and Australia.
They are the ratio of the full payout to the stake, in a decimal format.Decimal odds of 2.00 are 3️⃣ an even bet.
UK format (fractional odds) are used by British bookmakers.
They are the ratio of the amount won to the 3️⃣ stake – the solidus "/" is pronounced "to" for example 7/1 "seven to one".
Fractional odds of 1/1 are an even 3️⃣ bet.
US format odds are the amount won on a 100 stake when positive, and the stake needed to win 100 3️⃣ when negative.
US odds of 100 are an even bet.
Decimal Fractional US Hong Kong Indo Malay Implied probability 1.50 1/2 −200 3️⃣ 0.50 −2.00 0.50 1 in 1.5 = 67% 2.
00 Evens (1/1) +100 1.00 1.00 1.00 1 in 2 = 50% 3️⃣ 2.50 6/4 +150 1.50 1.50 −0.67 1 in 2.5 = 40% 3.00 2/1 +200 2.00 2.00 −0.50 1 in 3 3️⃣ = 33%
Conversion formulas x To Do this Decimal Fractional x-1, then convert to fraction Decimal US 100*(x-1) if x>2; -100/(x-1) 3️⃣ if x<2 Fractional Decimal divide fraction, then x+1 Fractional US divide fraction, then 100*x if x>=1; -100/x if x<1 US 3️⃣ Decimal (x/100)+1 if x>0; (−100/x)+1 if x<0 US Fractional x/100, if x>0; -100/x, if x<0 Decimal Hong Kong x-1 Hong 3️⃣ Kong Indo x if x>=1; (1/x)*-1 if x<1 Hong Kong Malay x if x<=1; (1/x)*-1 if x>1
In Asian betting markets, 3️⃣ other frequently used formats for expressing odds include Hong Kong, Malaysian, and Indonesian-style odds formats.
Odds are also quite often expressed 3️⃣ in terms of implied probability, which corresponds to the probability with which the event in question would need to occur 3️⃣ for the bet to be a break-even proposition (on the average).
Many online tools also exist for automated conversion between these 3️⃣ odds formats.
In setting odds, the bookmaker is subject to a number of limitations:
The probability implied by the odds should be 3️⃣ greater than the true probability for each possible outcome to guarantee positive expected profit.
If the wagers on each outcome are 3️⃣ made in ratio to the implied odds, then the bookmaker is guaranteed a profit (balanced book).
In many countries, bookmaking (the 3️⃣ profession of accepting sports wagers) is regulated but not criminalized.
The opinions of betting from sport authorities are mixed.
The United States 3️⃣ National Football League was previously fully against any sort of legalization of sports betting prior to the late 2010s, strongly 3️⃣ protesting it as to not bring corruption into the game.
 On the other hand, the CEO of the International 3️⃣ Cricket Council believe sports betting, in particular in India, should be legalized to curb illegal bookies where match fixing has 3️⃣ occurred from nontransparent bookmakers.
 According to the Law Commission of India, all forms of gambling are illegal.
Online sports betting 3️⃣ is a gray area and is not banned by any particular law in the Indian legal system.
That is because specific 3️⃣ provisions distinguish between games of chance and games of skill.
United States
Map of sports betting legality as of October 15, 3️⃣ 2021
Sports betting legal Sports betting illegal Kentucky has since legalized sports betting, with betting to go live no later than 3️⃣ December 28, 2023.
In the United States, it was previously illegal under the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 3️⃣ (PASPA) for states to authorize legal sports betting, hence making it effectively illegal.
The states of Delaware, Montana, Nevada, and Oregon-which 3️⃣ had pre-existing sports lotteries and sports betting frameworks, were grandfathered in and exempted from the effects of the Act.
 PASPA 3️⃣ was struck down by the Supreme Court in Murphy v.
National Collegiate Athletic Association in 2018, paving the way for other 3️⃣ states to legalize sports betting.
In May 2020, it was reported that since the Supreme Court's PASPA decision, over $20 billion 3️⃣ had been spent on sports betting in the United States.
 As of May 2022, 30 states and Washington, D.C.
have operational 3️⃣ legalized sports betting, while an additional four states have legalized it, but have not yet launched legal sportsbooks.
Positions of American 3️⃣ professional sports leagues
The positions of the four major American sports leagues (representing American football, baseball, basketball, and ice hockey) have 3️⃣ become more complex since their decision to embrace daily fantasy sports (DFS) in 2014, which are described by those within 3️⃣ the industry as "almost identical to a casino" in nature.
With the contention by critics that such activities blur the lines 3️⃣ between gambling and fantasy sports, the endorsement of all four major sports leagues and many individual franchises provided a marked 3️⃣ contrast to their positions on betting.
 Professional sports leagues updated their positions again on May 14, 2018, when the Supreme 3️⃣ Court of the United States overturned the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 (PASPA).
While the National Basketball Association 3️⃣ (NBA) was once active in preventing sports betting law relaxation, current NBA Commissioner Adam Silver became the first major sports 3️⃣ leader to break from previous administrative opposition to gambling.
In 2014 he stated in a New York Times op-ed, "I believe 3️⃣ that sports betting should be brought out of the underground and into the sunlight where it can be appropriately monitored 3️⃣ and regulated.
" In 2017, with support for legalization growing, he confirmed his belief that "legalized sports betting is inevitable".
Silver released 3️⃣ the following statement following the Supreme Court's overturning of PASPA: "Today's decision by the Supreme Court opens the door for 3️⃣ states to pass laws legalizing sports betting.
We remain in favor of a federal framework that would provide a uniform approach 3️⃣ to sports gambling in states that choose to permit it, but we will remain active in ongoing discussions with state 3️⃣ legislatures.
Regardless of the particulars of any future sports betting law, the integrity of our game remains our highest priority."MLB
Major League 3️⃣ Baseball (MLB) Commissioner Rob Manfred has also advocated the league changing its stance on sports betting, with both Manfred and 3️⃣ Silver noting that the scale of illegal sports betting makes opposition to betting meaningless.
He also stated a willingness to "try 3️⃣ to shape" any future legislation at federal level.
This was noted as a marked contrast to former Commissioner of the MLB 3️⃣ Bud Selig, with Manfred going beyond tacit approval and stating, "There is this buzz out there in terms of people 3️⃣ feeling that there may be an opportunity here for additional legalized sports betting."
MLB released the following statement when the Supreme 3️⃣ Court overturned PASPA: "Today's decision by the United States Supreme Court will have profound effects on Major League Baseball.
As each 3️⃣ state considers whether to allow sports betting, we will continue to seek the proper protections for our sport, in partnership 3️⃣ with other professional sports.
Our most important priority is protecting the integrity of our games.
We will continue to support legislation that 3️⃣ creates air-tight coordination and partnerships between the state, the casino operators and the governing bodies in sports toward that goal."
In 3️⃣ April 2022, league-owned television channel MLB Network launched Pregame Spread, a weekday afternoon show hosted by Matt Vasgersian dedicated to 3️⃣ analysis of betting lines and other aspects of sports gambling.NFL
The National Football League (NFL) remains the only sports league to 3️⃣ maintain public opposition to sports betting, however critics have noted that with the move of the Oakland Raiders to Las 3️⃣ Vegas in 2019, the NFL has positioned itself for legalization, while simultaneously contradicting its long-held position that sports betting in 3️⃣ NFL markets would lead to potential match-fixing.
 Commissioner Roger Goodell agreed with Manfred in a July 2017 seminar that betting 3️⃣ on in-game events, as opposed to the outcome of games, was a more palatable form of sports betting.
Like the NBA 3️⃣ and MLB, the NFL issued a statement on May 14, 2018.
It emphasized the league's commitment to protecting the integrity of 3️⃣ the game: "The NFL's long-standing and unwavering commitment to protecting the integrity of our game remains absolute.
" Moreover, the NFL 3️⃣ called on Congress to craft a Federal framework for regulated sports betting.
"Congress has long recognized the potential harms posed by 3️⃣ sports betting to the integrity of sporting contests and the public confidence in these events.
Given that history, we intend to 3️⃣ call on Congress again, this time to enact a core regulatory framework for legalized sports betting."NHL
The National Hockey League (NHL) 3️⃣ has not stated a public position for or against sports betting, with Commissioner Gary Bettman noting that they are smaller 3️⃣ than the NBA and NFL and less vulnerable to negative issues as a result.
The NHL was the first major professional 3️⃣ league to place a team in Nevada, when the expansion Vegas Golden Knights took the ice in 2017: since then 3️⃣ the league has signed sponsorship agreements with William Hill and MGM Resorts International that include betting partnerships and access to 3️⃣ in-play data.
Other clubs in states with legal sports gambling, such as the New Jersey Devils and Philadelphia Flyers, also have 3️⃣ similar sponsorships with bookmakers.
Following other US professional sports leagues, the NHL acknowledged the Supreme Court's PASPA decision with an internal 3️⃣ review of its policies.
"The Supreme Court's decision today paves the way to an entirely different landscape – one in which 3️⃣ we have not previously operated.
We will review our current practices and policies and decide whether adjustments are needed, and if 3️⃣ so, what those adjustments will look like.
It's important to emphasize that the Supreme Court's decision has no immediate impact on 3️⃣ existing League rules relating to sports wagering, and particularly, wagering involving NHL games."Other leagues
Major League Soccer (MLS) the top soccer 3️⃣ league in the United States and Canada has expressed sports betting as a possible way to gain popularity.
Commissioner Don Garber 3️⃣ has stated about sports gambling, " We have a project going on now to really dig in deeply and understand 3️⃣ it.
I'll join the chorus of saying it's time to bring it out of the dark ages.
We're doing what we can 3️⃣ to figure out how to manage that effectively."
The Alliance of American Football and XFL have both publicly endorsed gambling on 3️⃣ their games, with the AAF securing a partnership with MGM Resorts International and the XFL partnering with DraftKings.
Advocacy and lobbying
The 3️⃣ American Gaming Association stated in June 2017, that a coalition will advocate for the repeal of the United States' sports 3️⃣ betting ban.
In February 2018, a lobbying document surfaced advocating a new position held by the NBA and MLB – that 3️⃣ sports leagues should be financially compensated for betting activity.
Position of American NCAA
Perhaps the most extreme ban on sports betting is 3️⃣ imposed by the NCAA, the main governing body for U.S.college sports.
The NCAA reified their position in the wake of various 3️⃣ betting scandals, including the 1992 University of Nevada, Las Vegas and 1994 Arizona State University Point shaving scandals.
 As states 3️⃣ began legalizing sports betting in the late 2010s, the NCAA signaled a shift in tone.
In 2017, then-NCAA President Mark Emmert 3️⃣ talked about Las Vegas possibly hosting the NCAA Division I men's basketball tournament in the future.
Emmert acknowledged the Supreme Court's 3️⃣ overturn of PASPA on May 14, 2018, restating the NCAA's strong commitment to competition and its student-athletes.
"Our highest priorities in 3️⃣ any conversation about sports wagering are maintaining the integrity of competition and student-athlete well-being.
" Emmert also emphasized the importance of 3️⃣ proper federal regulation.
"While we recognize the critical role of state governments, strong federal standards are necessary to safeguard the integrity 3️⃣ of college sports and the athletes who play these games at all levels."
Three days after the Supreme Court ruling, the 3️⃣ NCAA suspended its policy prohibiting championship events from being held in states with legal sports betting.
The policy was fully rescinded 3️⃣ in May 2019.
In October 2020, Las Vegas was awarded the West Regional of the 2023 Division I men's basketball tournament; 3️⃣ the Frozen Four, the final phase of the Division I men's hockey tournament, in 2026; and the men's basketball Final 3️⃣ Four in 2028.
As of the 2021–22 school year, the official manuals for all three NCAA divisions still expressly ban a 3️⃣ member institution's athletic department staff, non-athletic staff with responsibilities related to athletic activities, athletic conference staff, and student athletes from 3️⃣ knowingly participating in sports wagering activities.
This ban covers all competitions, whether intercollegiate, amateur, or professional, as well as team practices, 3️⃣ in any sport in which the NCAA conducts a championship, plus Division I FBS football (whose championships have never been 3️⃣ operated by the NCAA) and all sports within the scope of the NCAA Emerging Sports for Women program.
 The only 3️⃣ exception is traditional wagers between institutions, most commonly associated with rivalries or bowl games; according to the NCAA, "items wagered 3️⃣ must be representative of the involved institutions or the states in which they are located."
The NCAA maintains that "Sports wagering 3️⃣ has the potential to undermine the integrity of sports contests and jeopardizes the well-being of student-athletes and the intercollegiate athletics 3️⃣ community.
It also demeans the competition and competitors alike by spreading a message that is contrary to the purpose and meaning 3️⃣ of 'sport.'"
Positions of other sports leagues and governing bodies
Premier League kit of West Ham United sponsorship by Betway
The Football Association, 3️⃣ the governing body for association football in England, has imposed football betting bans on all individuals involved in the sport-players, 3️⃣ managers, match officials, and club staff.
The scope of these bans varies based on level of the English football pyramid.
The following 3️⃣ individuals are banned from betting on any football-related matter worldwide, or providing inside information to any individual who can reasonably 3️⃣ be assumed to use said information for betting purposes:
All players, managers, and club staff associated with any club occupying any 3️⃣ of the top eight levels of the men's league system (the Premier League, English Football League, and the top four 3️⃣ levels of the National League system) or the top two levels of the women's league system (the Women's Super League 3️⃣ and Women's Championship).
All match officials, plus coaches and assessors thereof, who operate at Level 3 or above in the FA's 3️⃣ referee classification system.
Individuals who are associated at clubs at lower levels of the men's or women's league systems, plus match 3️⃣ officials at FA Level 4 or below, are only banned with respect to the match or competition in which they 3️⃣ are involved or can influence, and also to the league in which they participate.
All individuals are banned from advertising or 3️⃣ promoting any football betting activity in which FA regulations prohibit them from engaging.
This, however, only applies to individuals in their 3️⃣ personal capacities.
For example, if a club is sponsored by a betting company and said company places its logo on the 3️⃣ club's kit, the team's players are not in violation of the betting rules.
International baseball and softball
The World Baseball Softball Confederation, 3️⃣ the international governing body for baseball and softball, has betting rules similar to those of Major League Baseball.
Participants in any 3️⃣ WBSC-sanctioned event are banned from betting on the following:
Any WBSC competition in which they are participating.
Any event in the participant's 3️⃣ sport, even if not directly governed by WBSC.
For example: An individual involved with a national baseball team cannot bet on 3️⃣ a Major League Baseball game.
However, someone involved solely with a national softball team can bet on an MLB game.
Any event 3️⃣ in any multisport competition in which an individual is participating.
For example, an Olympic baseball or softball player cannot bet on 3️⃣ any Olympic event taking place at that specific Summer Olympics.
The WBSC statutes define "participant" as any player, team staff member 3️⃣ (including coaches/managers), tournament official (such as umpires and official scorers), or anyone in an ownership, executive, or staff role within 3️⃣ any entity that organizes or promotes a WBSC-sanctioned event.
The betting ban, as in the case of The FA's rules outlined 3️⃣ above, also extends to providing inside information that the tipper could reasonably believe will be used to bet on a 3️⃣ WBSC event.
The International Cricket Council imposes a blanket ban on what it calls "corrupt conduct" by anyone it defines as 3️⃣ a "participant".
Under the ICC anti-corruption statutes, a "participant" is defined as:
Anyone who has been selected to play in any international 3️⃣ or domestic match that falls under the jurisdiction of any national cricket federation [a] within the previous 24 months (defined 3️⃣ by the ICC as a "player").
within the previous 24 months (defined by the ICC as a "player").
Anyone who "is employed 3️⃣ by, represents or is otherwise affiliated to" any international or domestic team falling under the jurisdiction of any national federation 3️⃣ (defined by the ICC as "player support personnel").
Those who have served in such a role in the past remain subject 3️⃣ to the code for 24 months after the end of their term.
Any cricketer or player support staffer who is currently 3️⃣ under a ban imposed for violations of the ICC anti-corruption code, or the equivalent code of any national federation.
Any ICC 3️⃣ administrative official, match referee, pitch curator (groundskeeper), player agent, umpire, or umpire support staffer.
The ICC shares anti-corruption jurisdiction with national 3️⃣ cricket federations, all of which have anti-corruption rules substantially identical to those of the ICC.
The ICC has elaborate mechanisms for 3️⃣ determining whether it or a national federation will take action under the relevant anti-corruption code.
In general, the ICC has either 3️⃣ exclusive or priority jurisdiction over international matches, while national federations have responsibility for actions relating only to domestic matches.
The ICC 3️⃣ code bans the following activities with regard to any international match, whether or not the participant had any involvement in 3️⃣ said match, or any possible means of influencing the outcome:
Any attempted or actual match fixing, including spot-fixing (i.e.
, manipulating a 3️⃣ specific event within a match).
However, manipulation of international matches strictly for strategic or tactical reasons is specifically excluded from the 3️⃣ anti-corruption code.
Such actions instead constitute violations of the ICC's code of conduct.
Seeking, offering, accepting, or agreeing to accept a bribe 3️⃣ to fix a match or event within a match.
Betting on any match, or on any event within a match.
Soliciting such 3️⃣ a bet is also banned.
Misuse of inside information that could reasonably be used for betting purposes.
Providing any benefits for the 3️⃣ purpose of violating the code.
Failing to report any attempted violation of the code by another individual, once the subject has 3️⃣ become aware of it.
Famous betting scandalsJoseph J.
"Sport" Sullivan was an American bookmaker and gambler from Boston, Massachusetts who helped to 3️⃣ initiate the 1919 Black Sox Scandal.
In 1919, the Chicago White Sox faced the Cincinnati Reds in the World Series.
This series 3️⃣ would go down as one of the biggest sports scandals of all time.
As the story goes, professional gambler Joseph Sullivan 3️⃣ paid eight members of the White Sox (Oscar Felsch, Arnold Gandil, Shoeless Joe Jackson, Fred McMullin, Charles Risberg, George Weaver, 3️⃣ and Claude Williams) around 10,000 dollars each to fix the World Series.
All eight players were banned from playing professional baseball 3️⃣ for the rest of their lives.
 Pete Rose, the all-time MLB leader in hits, was similarly banned from baseball in 3️⃣ 1989 for betting on games while he was an MLB manager.
The rule against gambling in baseball is known as "Rule 3️⃣ 21", which is publicly posted on dugout walls and states: "Any player, umpire, or club or league official or employee, 3️⃣ who shall bet any sum whatsoever on any baseball game in connection with which the bettor has a duty to 3️⃣ perform shall be declared permanently ineligible.
" People permanently banned from Major League Baseball are also forever banned from entry into 3️⃣ the Baseball Hall of Fame, although most such people have been reinstated a few years later by a later Commissioner 3️⃣ of Baseball.
For instance, Mickey Mantle and Willie Mays were both banned from baseball in 1983 after taking jobs as casino 3️⃣ greeters (which would have expelled them from the Hall of Fame had it been allowed to stand); they were reinstated 3️⃣ two years later.
Only Rose has yet to be reinstated.
A 1906 betting scandal between the Massillon Tigers and Canton Bulldogs, two 3️⃣ of the top teams in professional American football in the early 1900s, led to the demise of "big-money" professional football 3️⃣ for several years.
Modern research has suggested that the claims of betting were unsubstantiated.
On December 7, 1980, the San Francisco 49ers 3️⃣ overcame a halftime deficit of 28 points in what became the greatest regular season comeback victory in NFL regular season 3️⃣ history.
By the beginning of the third quarter, notorious Vegas bookmaker Frank Rosenthal received forfeiture notices from 246 San Francisco bettors 3️⃣ totaling more than $25,000 in premature winnings.
Rosenthal was able to retain these winnings despite the outcome of the game due 3️⃣ to gambling regulations previously established by the NAGRA.
The Cronje Affair was an India-South Africa Cricket match fixing scandal that went 3️⃣ public in 2000.
 It began in 1996 when the-then captain of the South African national cricket team, Hansie Cronje, was 3️⃣ convinced by Mukesh "John" Gupta, an Indian bookmaker, to throw a match during a Test in Kanpur, India.
The scheme was 3️⃣ discovered when Delhi police recorded illegal dealings between Indian bookmaker Sanjay Chawla and Cronje.
According to the Telegraph in 2010, Cronje 3️⃣ was paid off a total of £65,000 from Gupta.
Corruption in tennis has been long considered as issue.
 In 2011, the 3️⃣ former world No.
55 Austrian tennis player, Daniel Köllerer, became the first tennis player to be banned for life for attempting 3️⃣ to fix matches.
The violations were outstanding between October 2009 and July 2010 after The Tennis Integrity Units had launched an 3️⃣ investigation on behalf of the International Tennis Federation and the ATP and WTA tours.
In 2004 and 2006, Koellerer was banned 3️⃣ for six months due to his bad behavior.
In addition, in August 2010, he facilitated betting by placing odds for matches 3️⃣ and had links for placing bets.
Machine learning in sports betting
Machine learning models can make predictions in real time based on 3️⃣ data from numerous disparate sources, such as player performance, weather, fan sentiment, etc.
Some models have shown accuracy slightly higher than 3️⃣ domain experts.
 These models require a large amount of data that is comparable and well organized prior to analysis, which 3️⃣ makes them particularly well suited to predicting the outcome of Esports matches, where large amounts of well structured data is 3️⃣ available.
See alsoReferencesBibliographyBoyd, Kier (1981).
Gambling Technology Washington, D.C.: FBI LaboratoryWashington, D.C.
: FBI Laboratory Davies, Richard (2001).
Betting the Line Columbus, Ohio: The 3️⃣ Ohio State University Press ISBN 0-8142-0880-0
Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University Press ISBN 0-8142-0880-0 Finley, Peter (2008).
Sports Scandals Westport, Connecticut: 3️⃣ Greenwood Press ISBN 978-0-313-34458-9
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press ISBN 978-0-313-34458-9 Rose, Pete (2004).
My Prison Without Bars St.
Martin's Press ISBN 1-57954-927-6St.
Martin's Press 3️⃣ ISBN 1-57954-927-6 Thompson, William (2001).
Gambling in America-An Encyclopedia of History, Issues, and Society Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO ISBN 1-57607-159-6
Media related 3️⃣ to Sports betting at Wikimedia Commons
sites de apostas de cs go:estrela bet baixar
Notícias curiosas, inusitadas, polêmicas e bizarras, por Fernando Moreira.
01/02/2024 09h31 Atualizado 01/02/2024
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